STANDARD GRADE

These cellulose filters are used in qualitative analytical techniques to determine and identify materials.

Grade S1: 11 µm

The most widely used filter paper for routine applications with medium retention and flow rate. Extended range of sizes includes 10 to 500 mm diameter circles and 460 x 570 mm sheets.

This grade covers a wide range of laboratory applications and is frequently used for clarifying liquids. Traditionally the grade is used in qualitative analytical separations for precipitates such as lead sulfate, calcium oxalate (hot), and calcium carbonate.

In agriculture, it is used for soil analysis and seed testing procedures. In the food industry, Grade 1 is used for numerous routine techniques to separate solid foodstuffs from associated liquid or extracting liquid and is widely used in education for teaching simple qualitative analytical separations.

In air pollution monitoring, using circles or rolls, atmospheric dust is collected from airflow and the stain-intensity measured photometrically. For gas detection, the paper is impregnated with a chromogenic reagent and color formation quantified by optical reflectance.

Grade S2: 8 µm

Slightly more retentive than Grade 1 with a corresponding increase in filtration time (i.e., slightly slower filtration speed). More absorbent than Grade 1. In addition to general filtration in the 8 µm particle size range, the extra absorbency is utilized, for example, to hold soil nutrient in plant growth trials. Also used for monitoring specific contaminants in the atmosphere and in soil testing.

Grade S3: 6 µm

Double the thickness of Grade 1 with still finer particle retention and excellent loading capacity; more precipitate can be held without clogging. The extra thickness gives increased wet strength and makes this grade highly suitable for use in Büchner funnels. The high absorbency is particularly valuable when the paper is used as a sample carrier.

Grade S4: 20-25 µm

Extremely fast filtering with excellent retention of coarse particles and gelatinous precipitates such as ferric hydroxide and aluminum hydroxide. Very useful as a rapid filter for routine clean-up of biological fluids or organic extracts during analysis. Used when high flow rates in air pollution monitoring are required and the collection of fine particles is not critical.

Grade S5: 2.5 µm

The maximum degree of fine particle filtration in the qualitative range. Capable of retaining the fine precipitates encountered in chemical analysis. Slow flow rate. Excellent clarifying filter for cloudy suspensions and for water and soil analysis.

Grade S6: 3 µm

Twice as fast as Grade 5 with similar fine particle retention. Often specified for boiler water analysis applications.

Grade S7: 7-12 µm

A thick filter paper with very high loading capacity for fast filtration of medium to coarse precipitates. Offers high absorbency and increased wet strength.

Grade S8: 4-7 µm

Very popular, thin filter paper, medium-fast with medium to fine particle retention. Used for many routine analytical applications in different industries, (e.g., particle separation from food extracts or filtration of solids from digested environmental samples, e.g., for ICP/AAS analysis).

Grade S9: 4-7 µm

A medium fast filter paper with medium to fine particle retention. Used for a wide variety of analytical routine applications in different industries like food testing (e.g., determination of fat content) or removal of carbon dioxide and turbidity from beverages (e.g., beer analysis).

Grade S10: 8-10 µm

A thick filter paper with high loading capacity. Combines medium retention with medium-fast to fast filtration speed.

Grade S11: < 2 µm

A dense filter paper for collecting very small particles and removing fine precipitates. Used in sample preparation, e.g., in the beverage industry for residual sugar determination, acidic spectra, refractometric analysis, and HPLC.

ASHLESS GRADE

Rothstein quantitative filters are designed for gravimetric analysis and the preparation of samples for instrumental analysis. They are available in three formats designed to meet your specific needs.

•»   Ashless: 0.007% ash maximum for Grades 40 to 44 and a maximum of 0.01% for the 589 Grades – very pure filters
       suitable for a wide range of critical analytical filtration procedures
•»   Hardened low ash: 0.015% ash maximum – treated with a strong acid to remove trace metals and produce high wet
      strength and chemical resistance. These filters are particularly suitable for Büchner filtration where
      the tough smooth surface of the filter makes it easy to recover precipitates.
•»  Hardened ashless: 0.006% ash maximum – acid hardened to give high wet strength and chemical
      resistance with extremely low ash content. The tough surface makes these filters suitable for a
     wide range of critical filtration procedures.

Grade A0: 8 µm

The classic general purpose ashless filter paper with medium speed and retention. Typical applications include gravimetric analysis for numerous components in cements, clays, iron, and steel products; as a primary filter for separating solid matter from aqueous extracts in general soil analysis, quantitative determination of sediments in milk and as a pure analytical grade clean-up filter for solutions prior to AA spectrometry. Also used as a high-purity filter in the collection of trace elements and radionuclides from the atmosphere.

Grade A1: 20 µm

The fastest ashless filter paper, recommended for analytical procedures involving coarse particles or gelatinous precipitates (e.g., iron or aluminum hydroxides). Also used in quantitative air pollution analysis as a paper tape for impregnation when determining gaseous compounds at high flow rates. The 47 mm Grade 41 filter can be easily removed for further analysis or culturing.

Grade A2: 2.5 µm

A world standard for critical gravimetric analysis with the finest particle retention of all Whatman cellulose filter papers. Typical analytical precipitates include barium sulfate, metastannic acid, and finely precipitated calcium carbonate.

Grade A3: 16 µm

Intermediate in retention between Grades 40 and 41, and twice as fast as Grade 40. Typical applications include foodstuffs analysis; soil analysis; particle collection in air pollution monitoring for subsequent analysis by XRF techniques; and inorganic analysis in the construction, mining and steel industries.

Grade A4: 3 µm

Thin version of Grade 42 retaining very fine particles but with lower ash weight per sample and almost twice the flow rate of Grade 42.

Grade A5: 12-25 µm

‘Black Ribbon Filter’ – the established standard in quantitative analysis for the filtration of coarse precipitates (class 2a acc. to DIN 53 135). Ashless filter paper with very high flow rate. Used for many quantitative standard methods, especially for gravimetric applications (e.g., determination of the ash content in foodstuffs), or for the Blaine test in the cement industry.

Grade A6: 4-12 µm

‘White Ribbon Filter’ – ashless standard filter paper for medium fine precipitates (class 2b acc. to DIN 53 135) offering medium filtration speed. Applied in a variety of routine methods in quantitative analysis, e.g., determination of the sand content in foodstuffs; determination of the grade of flour; or analysis of aqueous suspensions in the paper industry.

Grade A7: 2 µm

‘Blue Ribbon Filter’ – ashless standard filter paper for very fine precipitates (class 2d acc. to DIN 53 135). Slow filter paper with highest efficiency for collecting very small particles. Also used for many analytical routine methods in different industries, e.g., determination of the amount of insoluble contaminants in animal and vegetable fats and oils.

HARDENED LOW ASH

The maximum ash content of these grades is intermediate between ashless and qualitative grades. They are particularly suitable for Büchner filtrations where it is desirable to recover the precipitate from the filter surface after filtration. Other characteristics include high wet strength and chemical resistance which are similar to the acid hardened ashless filter papers.

Grade B0: 2.7 µm

Retention of very fine crystalline precipitates. The thinnest of all Whatman filter papers. Slow flow rate. Hardened and highly glazed surface. This finish also keeps the paper free from loose surface fibers. Highly suitable for qualitative or quantitative filtrations requiring vacuum assistance on Büchner or 3-piece filter funnels. Very strong when wet. Will withstand wet handling and precipitate removal by scraping. In the electronics industry, the virtual absence of fiber shedding is utilized in carriers for integrated circuits.

Grade B2: 7 µm

The general purpose hardened filter paper with medium retention and flow rate. Very hard surface.

Grade B4: 22 µm

Very fast filtration for use with coarse and gelatinous precipitates. High wet strength makes this grade very suitable for vacuum assisted fast filtration of ‘difficult’ coarse or gelatinous precipitates.

HARDENED ASHLESS

These are the supreme quantitative filter papers featuring high wet strength and chemical resistance. These papers are acid hardened, which reduces ash to an extremely low level. Their tough surfaces make them suitable for a wide range of critical analytical filtration operations. Each grade offers a convenient combination of filtration speed and particle retention.

Grade C0: 8 µm

The general purpose hardened ashless filter paper with medium retention and flow rate. Extremely pure and strong with a hard surface. High chemical resistance to strong acid and alkali. Frequently used in the gravimetric analysis of metals in acid/alkali solutions and in collecting hydroxides after precipitation by strong alkalis.

Grade C1: 22 µm

Fast filtration of coarse particles and gelatinous precipitates in acid/alkali solutions during gravimetric analysis. Typical applications include fiber in animal foodstuffs, gelatine in milk and cream, chloride in cement, and chloride and phosphorous in coal and coke.

Grade C2: 2.7 µm

High retention of fine particles under demanding conditions. Slow flow rate. Very hard and strong with excellent chemical resistance. Often used in gravimetric metal determinations.